John Philip Holland: the Irish born inventor of the modern submarine:
John Philip Holland was born in Liscannor, County Clare, in Ireland in 1841. A former Christian Brother teacher, with a love of maths and science, he first conceived of submarine designs when teaching in Cork in the early 1860s. After emigrating to America in 1873, Holland built his first submarines with the financial support of Irish revolutionaries in the US in the late 1870s – early 1880s, including the so called ‘Fenian Ram’, a critical breakthrough in the history of submarine design. After years of trials and setbacks, Holland designed and built the Holland VI – now recognised as the first fully functioning modern submarine in the late 1890s. The Holland VI became the US Navy’s first operational submarine in 1900, and it was the prototype for the first US Navy submarine fleet, as well as for the first British, Dutch, Russian and Japanese submarines.